No, 10,000 were not killed in China's 1989 Tiananmen crackdown - SupChina

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No, 10,000 were not killed in China’s 1989 Tiananmen crackdown

At least 10,000 people were killed in Tiananmen Square in June 1989, according to a newly released British diplomatic cable.

In the past two days, some variation of that lede has appeared in multiple Western media outlets, from BBC to AFP. The articles will all say that the secret diplomatic cable was sent by Britain’s ambassador to China, Alan Donald, from Beijing to London on June 5, 1989. The “10,000 killed” statistic came via Donald’s “close friend” in the State Council, which is the Chinese cabinet, the articles will duly add. Some will even list the more “horrific” details, such as, “APCs then ran over bodies time and time again to make ‘pie’ and remains collected by bulldozer.”

These articles are, to varying extents, rewrites of this HK01 piece (link in Chinese) published last Wednesday (Hong Kong Free Press had it first in English, on Thursday) — and they are all “objective” reporting insofar that, yes, Alan Donald sent a cable citing a figure from an anonymous official. Here’s the thing about objectivity in journalism though: it means nothing when what you’ve reported isn’t true.

Let’s say this clearly, upfront: 10,000 people did not die at Tiananmen in the crackdown, either on the Square or in the surrounding streets. Fire up Google and you’ll find that one of the most widely cited (and highest) death toll counts is 2,600, allegedly given by the Chinese Red Cross. (As Nicholas Kristof wrote on June 21, 1989, “Some of the early estimates of thousands of deaths, including the American estimate [of 3,000 dead], were based on reports that the Chinese Red Cross had counted 2,600 deaths. But the Chinese Red Cross has denied saying any such thing, and this seems to have been an offshoot of two other rumors that variously used the figure of 2,600 to describe the number of students who were missing and the number of students who were killed.” Kristof would later win a Pulitzer Prize for his coverage of China’s democracy movement.) Students said on the morning of June 5 that “at least 500 people may have been killed in the crackdown.” Incidentally, the 500 to 2,600 range is cited in a since-declassified U.S. cable, which also notes “injuries up to 10,000.” Human Rights Watch cites 2,000. George Washington University’s website has a fascinating “declassified history” of the Tiananmen crackdown, and here’s how the website describes Document 31, a cable sent from Beijing to Washington D.C. on June 22, 1989:

Contrary to earlier reports in the western media, the cable asserts that many if not most of the deaths associated with the crackdown occurred on Changan Avenue and other streets surrounding the square, rather than on Tiananmen Square itself. The document calls the notion that the military could have suffered more casualties than civilians “inconceivable,” but holds that “civilian deaths probably did not reach the figure of 3,000 used in some press reports,” but believes that the figure put forward by the Chinese Red Cross of 2,600 military and civilian deaths with 7,000 wounded to be “not an unreasonable estimate.”

Again, that’s from the American embassy. So, “2,600,” then. The exact casualty figure has never been pinpointed — accurate information was hard to come by in the chaos, and there were many actors with agendas to advance (some even within the Chinese cabinet, one might say) — but no five-digit number has ever, at any point since June 4, 1989, been in serious discussion. There’s simply no corroboration, not from the scores of Western journalists on the ground that fateful night, not from the Tiananmen Mothers who are still lobbying for the truth today, not from anyone.

But what about this contention from a China scholar, as quoted in AFP (emphasis mine):

…French sinologist Jean-Pierre Cabestan said the British figure was credible, pointing out that recently declassified US documents gave a similar assessment.

That’s two pretty independent sources which say the same thing,” said Cabestan, a professor at Hong Kong Baptist University.

AFP doesn’t specify, but I think the “recently declassified U.S. document” mentioned there might be the same one Hong Kong Free Press refers to in its report: “In 2014, Next Magazine reported on White House declassified files, which estimated that 10,454 were killed and 40,000 were injured.” I couldn’t find the Next Magazine article in question, but that 10,454 figure appears in only one other place, also from 2014 — as Axios notes: “In 2014, NTDTV reported that a Chinese informer reported 10,454 fatalities.” Axios fails to point out that NTDTV is one of the propaganda arms of the Falun Gong.

Why this matters isn’t merely “this estimate is higher than previous estimates.” It’s that more than a few Western news outlets have chosen to report a random, likely fabricated number as fact, and that these articles represent a slap in the face to serious scholarship, to academics who have devoted actual time to researching the Tiananmen protests. It even feels like an affront to Liu Xiaobo, who successfully negotiated with troops to allow students safe passage from Tiananmen Square. It will cause well grounded Chinese liberals — including the many who lived through that era, who know more than they’ll ever publicly say — to shake their heads at the Western press, which they might’ve considered an ally. It will give Global Times ammunition. It will influence the conversation in the wrong way: Google results for “Tiananmen death toll” currently display the 10,000 figure at the top, polluting the first page; and you can expect to see “10,000 killed in Tiananmen” on your Facebook feeds soon, surely.

The Tiananmen tragedy — call it a massacre if you’d prefer, I won’t object — remains a blight on the collective Chinese psyche. It is a wound that has been cauterized but never healed, with the pus staining the legitimacy of the ruling party. The unspoken compromise between government and people that ensued — don’t talk politics and you can get rich — is an exceedingly harsh one, and one that looks worse with each passing year. But it is one that the population at large has accepted, in part because of how upsetting and messy and calamitous the truth is: One of China’s best generations was ruined by a protest that both sides now wish would’ve ended one day sooner. It doesn’t matter whether 100 or 3,000 people were killed, the consequences live on to this day, and millions have been impacted. We don’t need “10,000 killed in Tiananmen” obfuscating this truth.

Another reason this story matters is because ambassador Alan Donald’s telegram clearly reveals — unless he was cutting out of whole cloth — that there was a high-level Chinese official sympathetic enough with the student protesters to tell a foreign diplomat, “4 wounded girl students begged for their lives but were bayoneted. A 3 year old girl was injured but her mother was shot as she went to her aid as were six others who tried. 1000 survivors were told they could escape via Zhengyi Lu but were then mown down by specially prepared M/G positions,” all while also passing the buck, putting the blame on the “60 percent illiterate…primitives” of the 27th Army of Shanxi Province.

Someone from the State Council attempted to tip off a British diplomat — what a beautiful revelation, if true. That’s the story, and one that doesn’t get told nearly enough: how there was intense disagreement within the Chinese Communist Party — even in Deng Xiaoping’s inner circle, as Zhao Ziyang’s posthumous memoir reveals — about how to handle the protesters, and about the direction of the nation itself. There was dissent within the Party.

Perhaps that’s too much nuance for London- or Paris- or New York-based editors working holiday hours. And I get it, it’s simpler to slap on an SEO-friendly headline like “REVEALED: 10,000 killed in China’s 1989 crackdown” than to call up a China scholar like Geremie Barmé — who wrote for the documentary The Gate of Heavenly Peace, the best film ever made about the protests — to ask for context (natch, ALLEGED also doesn’t quite look as good in all-caps). I don’t want to be too harsh on the free press, which these days could stand to catch a break. It’s just that I think we can do better, objectively.

UK ambassador Alan Donald’s cables from Beijing to London (via HK01); click to enlarge

Anthony Tao

Anthony is the managing editor of SupChina. Follow him @anthonytao


  1. Mark Houston Reply

    Are you saying that the Tiananmen Square massacre was not a massacre because the official Central Government figure is only 2,600 deaths ?

    I was in Tianjin in May, 1989, and had staff disappear every month. The minute any employee showed friendship towards a foreigner, or work enthusiasm and work aptitude, they were transferred to their former company. I even had a staff, who was killed by former red guards Chinese management deputies) because she agreed to inform on their (the duties) criminality. This article is very one sided with total ignorance concerning the actual situation in China (and Beijing) during this period. 10,000 deaths is absolutely possible if you consider the huge number of demonstrations throughout the entire country.

    Shame on you for being such a lap dog.

    1. Kaiser Kuo Reply

      Wondering whether you even read the piece. You seem to be making your assumption based entirely on the headline. If you’d read the piece you’d see that the “official Central Government figure” is nowhere near 2,600; that there clearly was a massacre; and that the author calls it “a blight on the collective Chinese psyche… a wound that has been cauterized but never healed, with the pus staining the legitimacy of the ruling party.” Hardly sounds like the language of a lap dog.

  2. Jessica Yeung Reply

    But the reports are both factual and truth.
    1. They reported that there was a telegram from the then British ambassador to Beijing citing 10,000 deaths. That is both factual, and true. There was such a telegram, and it did say that.
    2. Of courses it cannot be corroborated. Nothing in China can be corroborated because the government blocks all investigations! Is this factual or true? Or only fake news?

  3. Bob Fonow Reply

    I can remember some of the events and have also read Zhao Ziyang’s book, and have heard comments from American officials in Beijing at the time. The main feature is the chaos, and internal discussions and competing views in the Party, which I think is a credit that few acknowledge and was the basis for much of China’s future success. The issue for current study is what happened when the military became involved, which had little if any experience in domestic demonstrations, versus letting the police handle it. Much reform followed the period, and security generally tightened, but an accommodation reached that has worked in China’s favor. However, one wonders how much of this lesson is learned in other countries, say the US, if a large and vociferous set of demonstrations were conducted on the mall in Washington today? For me it’s a frightening thought. In tense situations, violence is unpredictable, and easily escalates. Some of the events were monstrous, but not many monsters. High politics can be blood sports, but many decent people arose from those days. History continues..

  4. Shawn Chong Reply

    I read a book, by a western journalist, I found it in a library of a building I used to live in, in toronto. I remember it stating probably 2000, max 3000 people were killed. He offered a very unbiased version, props for a Westerner who was witness to the massacre and stuck in the city for I think 3 to 4 months.

    I wish I knew the title of the book, I would like to read it again, his insight to the turmoil of the party and the struggles of how to act, was a very refreshing unbiased view from a western journalist who offered a very informative view to a sad incident.

  5. Russel Future Reply

    The exact number of people killed in Tiananmen Square assault by 27th Army in 1989, was 10,454. This number is contained in internal documents available inside China, either at MSS or MPS. In the old days, if you knew someone in Directorate-7, you could find out this number. It was a secret, of course.

    This sad atrocity will leave a stench of evil in the air over Beijing until a new government comes to power, and opens the archives. This may take 100 years. It might take 1000. Or maybe only 3 or 4. If you watch the Brenton Tarrant video, and you see the woman on the ground, begging for here life, and Tarrant kills her – you can see that for some people, killing young women who are begging for their lives is pleasure. These are the kind of people the Communist Government of China sent into Tiananmen, back in 1989.

    The scale and extent of this mass-murder was extreme. The soldiers used bayonets on injured young girls begging for their lives. This incident represents a crime which has not been addressed. Some day, it will have to be. There actually are pictures of the event, and the cleanup of the pieces of the “pies” of crushed body parts, afterwards. Many, many people saw what happened. Partly, this is why no one who has knowledge or memory, trusts China, even today. Imagine if Germany tried to tell the world, that nobody died in their WW2 concentration camps. Germany today still pays pensions to those who survived Auschwitz. Chinese “Communists” try very hard to suppress knowledge of this horrific atrocity.

    The Chinese people on the mainland still cannot live in truth. They can make money, but their government has not changed, and this a great tragedy of modern history. The price of freedom has always been the blood of good people who choose to die, rather than live as slaves serving corrupt masters. If China does not reform it’s political systems and choose democracy, then I predict it’s cities will burn.

    The smartest thing the Chinese government could do now, is to change it’s name, hold open elections, and ask forgiveness from the Chinese people. Any leader which did that, would probably win re-election as President of a new Republic of China, and go down in history as a true hero, whose name would be remembered for all of human history. Look at the progress India has made, under Narendra Modi, and his recent re-election win. Look at Taiwan. Look at Japan. Democracy offers prosperity & operational state stability. No other system does, as the leaders are not accountable to anyone otherwise, and corruption is certain to occur, and rot the state from within. (Just look to France for an example of what happens.)

    The Tiananmen killings will hang like a Sword of Damocles over the Chinese state, until it learns to live in truth.

    1. Jonny Stones Reply

      India whose GDP/capita is less than 1/4 of China.
      Taiwan whose Economy is in a downspiral.
      Japan who effectively rules as a one party state, and has been stagnant for decades.

  6. Wini Xiping Pooh Reply

    Yeah guys, it was ONLY 3000. That’s like, totally way less than 10,000 so therefor it is okay.

  7. Peter Reply

    “Perhaps that’s too much nuance for London- or Paris- or New York-based editors working holiday hours.”

    With this single statement you have revealed your true agenda and completely discredited yourself. When a journalists lowers his political discourse to the level of Youtube comments you know that the insecurity runs deep.

  8. Disgusting Reply

    What is a soldier who kills his own people? A slave to politics, not a hero. I know they are living in hidden guilt but they are people who the world would have been better of if never born.

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